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Pyruvate dehydrogenase is the first component enzyme of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex contributes to transforming pyruvate into acetyl-CoA by a process called pyruvate decarboxylation (Swanson Conversion). Acetyl-CoA may then be used in the citric acid cycle to carry out cellular respiration, so pyruvate dehydrogenase contributes to linking the glycolysis metabolic pathway to the citric acid cycle and releasing energy via NADH. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) performs the first two reactions within the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC): a decarboxylation of substrate 1 (pyruvate) and a reductive acetylation of substrate 2 (lipoic acid). Lipoic acid is covalently bound to dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2), which is the second catalytic component enzyme of PDC. The reaction catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) is considered to be the rate-limiting step for the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc). Phosphorylation of E1 by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) inactivates E1 and subsequently the entire complex. PDK is inhibited by dichloroacetic acid and pyruvate, resulting in a higher quantity of activated, phosphorylated PDH.